Farmers in Nigeria improve productivity through sustainable farming methods
25 July 2022
The United Nations defines Sustainable Land Management as the use of land resources, including soils, water, animals and plants, for the production of goods to meet changing human needs, while simultaneously ensuring the long-term productive potential of these resources and the maintenance of their environmental functions.
Rapid population growth generates increasing demand on agricultural production, resulting in mounting pressure on the soils, forests, rivers, plants, and animals that we depend on for healthy food systems.
In the 12 RFS countries, households living in extreme poverty in rural areas rely on subsistence farming for their food and livelihoods with few alternative options. Smallholder farmers are often caught in low productivity traps whereby unsustainable agriculture and livestock rearing practices deplete and degrade natural resources, which, in turn, compromises ecosystem services and results in pervasive low agricultural yields.
This cycle renders rural smallholder farmers extremely vulnerable to climate change, climate variability, and extreme weather events. Increasing temperatures, changes in rainfall patterns, droughts and flooding directly impact land health by increasing erosion, drying soils, and destroying vegetation cover. This leads to a further decline in agricultural productivity. When paired with rapidly growing populations, these climate impacts often drive an expansion and intensification of agricultural production on already degraded land.
SLM incorporates a wide variety of approaches, including Climate-Smart Agriculture, Conservation Agriculture and agro-ecological approaches, to protect, conserve and rehabilitate natural resources. SLM approaches work to restore ecosystem functioning and promote the sustainable use of natural resources in order to ensure the productive capacity of these resources now and in the future. By improving the health and productive capacity of natural resources within communities, SLM approaches aim to improve agricultural yields, enabling smallholder farmers to achieve food and nutritional security and improve their livelihoods.
In addition to achieving beneficial socio-economic outcomes for communities, SLM practices improve ecosystem functioning and protect biodiversity. SLM interventions focus on improving water availability, improving soil health, and reducing biodiversity loss. These focus areas are particularly significant when it comes to adapting to climate change and reducing vulnerability to extreme weather events. For example, by introducing crop cover and improving the water retention of soil, smallholder farmers can simultaneously improve yields while increasing resilience to increases in temperature, decreases in rainfall, and drought. By reducing deforestation, improving livestock management, and promoting agroforestry approaches, SLM further contributes to global climate change mitigation efforts.
Sustainable Land Management incorporates a wide variety of approaches that work to increase land productivity, improve water availability and water use efficiency, improve soil fertility, prevent and rehabilitate land degradation, improve management of plants and livestock, and improve biodiversity. Within these approaches are common practices and technologies: improvement in plant varieties, minimum soil disturbance, vegetation management, soil erosion control, water harvesting, and agroforestry, amongst others.
RFS country projects teams are facilitating the adoption of a wide range of practices and technologies through interventions that are tailored to the specific country context. For example, in Niger, Malawi, and Tanzania, country project teams are establishing and capacitating community committees to develop and implement local plans for natural resource and rehabilitation management. In Burundi and Uganda, FAO is using the Farmer Field School approach to train farmers in soil and water conservation, establish demonstration plots and conduct field visits to share best practices and develop smallholder capacity in applying successful practices.
Explore the RFS Country Projects to see more examples of how RFS countries are implementing Sustainable Land Management activities.
Stories from the Field
Explore our stories from the field to learn more about how RFS country project teams are implementing activities related to the programmatic theme of Sustainable Land Management.
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While attention has been paid largely to forest restoration, meeting global land restoration pledges will require scaling-up restoration of ecosystem services on agricultural land. This paper contributes to the literature on restoration practice and agricultural technology adoption, by shifting the focus onto the farm and considering the role of intrahousehold dynamics in the uptake of farmland restoration practices. We examine the intrahousehold decisions and gender relations surrounding the trial of two on-farm restoration practices: tree planting and planting basins; with over 2,500 farmers in the eastern drylands of Kenya. Combining results from household surveys, interviews and focus group discussions, our findings reveal that decisions over the uptake of restoration practices, although usually initiated by women who attend agricultural workshops, are often discussed between husband and wife and that multiple social dimensions intersect to shape men’s and women’s interest in, contribution to, and benefit from different practices. Furthermore, our study demonstrates that these intrahousehold relations are, in turn, shaped by women’s participation in innovation processes and broader societal changes, particularly the outmigration of rural men. Based on these insights, we offer recommendations for improving the dissemination and uptake of on-farm restoration practices in eastern Kenya and achieving more inclusive and gender-equitable outcomes.
Developed by the Platform for Agrobiodiversity Research (PAR), the Diversity Assessment Tool for Agrobiodiversity and Resilience (DATAR) is an open-source pilot software platform with a web interface, a web portal, and an Android app that allows for consideration and integration of diverse crop varieties, livestock breeds, and aquatic farmed-types into decision-making plans. This brochure has information on updates to the platform.
To combat land degradation worldwide, mainstreaming and scaling out SLM has to be based on evidence and informed decision-making at all levels. SLM is best achieved through a combination of effective SLM technologies at the landscape level, implemented via appropriate SLM approaches and supported by an enabling environment.
FAO and WOCAT, building on the former FAO-LADA (Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands) and DESIRE projects and relevant WOCAT experiences, have developed a methodological framework for Decision Support (DSF) for Mainstreaming and Scaling out SLM from national to local landscape levels. The framework, with its seven modules and different entry points, offers a detailed description of activities, tools, and methods that are available for use and adaptation by different countries to facilitate SLM decision-making.